In the book Science, Evolution, and Creationism, the main message is that the study on biological evolution has transformed and shifted human understanding of how humanity appeared on the Earth. Ancient fossils, theories, data, and findings give a solid proof that human beings are a result of a long and consistent process of changes from single-cell organisms to the ones with a complicated and diverse structure of the body. Furthermore, people are used to thinking that they are a masterpiece of biological creation. However, evolution is currently happening, changing and mutating the generations of small organisms. Additionally, it can be a cause of both extinction and a rise of species, since due to natural selection and mutation principles, only the strongest representative survives. Using empirical data and research findings, one can say that evolution has become an exact science that allows making true predictions on the nature of this or that species. Despite evolution can contradict general religious views and theories since religion does not operate with facts, evidence and empirical data, it goes beyond a standard scientific view (National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine, 2008). Therefore, evolution makes the best existing background for studying the human origin and appearance on the Earth.

First and foremost, evidence of the evolution being true and valid as a process is the existence of fossils, talking generally, petrified skeletons of ancient species. Exactly the existence of an initial and transitional fossil proves the evolution process. Scientists have found a plenty of species, the habitat of which was water (it is generally known that the life was initiated in water). Additionally, there are a plenty of evidence of limb animals living on the ground (Clack, 2012). However, the general question that was and still remains partly acute is whether there was a transitional species between water and limb species. In other words, it was supposed to have lungs to breathe in air from the atmosphere, but simultaneously primitive legs to pull them through plant channels and other features. In fact, these were fish-like animals. In the end, such fossils were found and called tetrapods (Ohno, 2012). They proved the fact that the appearance of animals was not sudden; therefore, it illustrated evolution as a gradual and consistent process of organism development.

The first and one of the most interesting examples of a transitional fossil was Tiktaalik, having both characteristic features of fish and an early tetrapod. It was found in northern Canada, the Ellesmere Island. This particular region was initially chosen for paleontological research since 375 years ago it was a busy transitional path. It was crossed by many streams with rich plant life on its banks, creating very fertile soil for bacteria, elementary animals and fungi (National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine, 2008). Therefore, there was a great possibility to find fossils there, and paleontologists did despite animals were not yet living on the ground.

The existence of fossils and their difference from what scientists can see now gives a background for differences in species biology. The results of fossil investigation can serve as an explanation of one species existence and the extinction of others. The evolution theory explains the existence or non-existence of species by the process of natural selection. Sexual reproduction is responsible for combining genes of male and female species to produce a new one (Clack, 2012). Therefore, if a combination leads to mutational traits harming the organism, the nature “selects” whether this species can exist further. It is important from the viewpoint of the survival rate and adaptability to the changing environment.

 

The process of natural selection and the principle “the strongest survives” are not only responsible for species existence, but they are also true for plants (Clack, 2012). The brightest example of the evolutionary selection of plants is wheat domestication. Once early human beings understood that it was more convenient to grow plants that to rely on wild ones. They took plants with the greatest at that point survival traits and planted them, domesticating them for further generations (National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine, 2008). Telling the truth, such process cannot be named completely natural or evolutional, but the natural selection of wheat as the strongest plant played a great role in its domestication. The same technique is now used for the creation of biofuels. Scientists, in fact, repeat the natural selection process by creating new combinations of molecules in crops chemically and test their traits, and plants with the best traits are used for making a biofuel (National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine, 2008). Again, this process is artificial, but solving the puzzle of the natural selection mechanism allowed people to use the same technique.

Biofuels testing, wheat domestication, genetically modified organisms and other activities are now a scientific reality. As a matter of fact, nowadays, evolutionary modification is a scientific fact despite some consider it a scientific theory. Telling the truth, natural selection and evolution are scientific theories since they raise some doubts and confusion. However, the mechanisms they use studied by scientists during years of research are scientific facts since they allow people to produce many new species and, in fact, produce evolution with their own hands.

In conclusion, it must be said that evolution is the mechanism that has made people what they are now. It comprehensively explains the natural phenomena of mutation, development, and differences between species that seem to be similar or even the same. It allowed human beings to use the natural technique of creating something new and useful for humanity as a whole and its activity areas in particular. Evolution seems to be an explanation for everything that has happened to species on the Earth, starting from microorganisms development in water to complex animal formation on the ground.

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