The applicability of Magnetic Resonance

The Applicability of Magnetic Resonance (MR) in Medicine

The applicability of magnetic resonance (MR) in medicine has radiological roots, and it has become a revolutionary alternative to the X-ray diagnostics. The studies performed by using MR have scientific basis and is closely linked to the peculiarities of human body. This technique of detection of clinical studies includes the studied aspects of changes in the MR and the subsequent events that still require mutual harmonization.

One of the advantages of MR is that in specific physical and chemical circumstances, it is easier to scan and qualitatively diagnose certain disorders of internal systems in human body than with any other diagnostic methods. As human body is predominantly composed of water, the influence of a strong magnetic field guides the hydrogen atoms in particular directions to water molecules of the patient. Thus, they represent the image of the scanned internal condition of the patient. Guided impulse of radio waves changes the energy of hydrogen atoms, which occupy the starting position after the termination of the energy and form magnetic resonance.

Such an action of MR and differences between its vibrations is fixed in different dimensions, which allows diagnosing on the basis of two- and three-dimensional images. The significant effect enables to base on the versatile objective results. However, there are still more critical views on the MR in the scientific circles. As it is confirmed by the studies, increasing of the magnetic field causes certain physical and chemical changes (signal-to-noise ratio, changing the dynamics of chemical processes, deposition of radiofrequency, etc.) that have polar values for different applications of MR. Therefore, some accompanied phenomena should be compensated by additional methods, or they should be decreased, and the others are advantageous for the results of the MR application.

Strengthening of the magnetic field in the use of MRI to 8.0 T has been found safe for imaging of medical scanning. Setting standards for field strength changed the physical characteristics of the MR, and that had raised the questions about the optimization of the system to display the correct results of the study. Due to the increased magnetic field, the linear increase in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) needs compensation in the terms of clinical studies, but it will also affect extraneous factors such as radiofrequency coils, the choice of image acquisition, spatial resolution, etc. In addition, the technical resistance at increased (3.0 T) or reduced (1.5 T) SNR should be considered, as well. The learned details of compensation measures could lead the clinical requirements and the physical characteristics to consensus version.

Discussion points are contained in the phenomena of Larmor frequency of the magnetic field. Its increase to 127.8 MHz at 3.0 T has both positive and negative effects. It will take a specialist some time to work with different resonance frequencies, which creates certain difficulties in setting the equipment and the experience of the specialist with particular type of resonance frequency. Along with that, different paces of cycling of spins entail both facilitation to increase acquisition speed and more accurate in-phase setting to monitor pulse sequence.

Discussed chemical shifts relate to the changes in the molecular environment, which maintains the function of the protons. Due to the field strength, its proportional shift has a positive development in spectroscopic application because of the wide separation of the resonances. However, such chemical changes are unacceptable to display structural MRI,increasing the risk of dark lines distorting a complete clinical image of the patient.

The susceptibility effect by changing the field strength should be examined, as well. Thus, the low magnetic susceptibility of the human body of a patient is not capable to increase the magnetic field. Different physical data of a particular patient form a difference in magnetic susceptibility, and variations of local magnetic fields enhance due to the paramagnetic agents. However, the difficulty lies in the fact that different tissues and bones have different magnetic susceptibility; therefore, high-quality imaging of the relevant information about the condition of the body or separate parts of human body on a single shot requires harmonization of the physical characteristics of the patient and changing magnetic sensitivity.

The important part of MR usage is RF absorption responsible for the security measure of the influence of magnetic field on the human body. It should be noted that the pulse sequence remains the same with 3.0 T and 1.5 T, but energy deposition becomes higher in human tissues. Therefore, it is still important to determine the energy absorption based on the weight of the patient optimizing the technology individually for every patient. However, this will impact the reduction in the rate of relaxation frequency and RF pulses. The threshold for absorption rate can achieve only 1.5 and 3.0 T as the safest levels of MR use, but there is a problem with the physical and technical conditions for the use of pulse sequences that inhibit MR system because of the slow data acquisition (Yilmaz 64). Thus, the consensus between security needs of the client and correct display of the image is required. If the fast SNR is needed through the reduction of the number of received signals, these results will not be enough to meet the quality and effectiveness. Consequently, such controversies of technology of MR application require a holistic and systematic approach to solve these detailed points.

Therefore, the existing technology for producing high-quality images of the internal organs of the patient is quite effective if it is provided with proper improvement. Finding solutions to improve the safety of the human body and simultaneous enhancement of the quality of the procedure due to the optimization of internal physical and chemical processes is the priority-driven and a highly discussed direction in medicine.

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