The development of electric vehicles has faced a lot of challenges especially in terms of providing the electricity charging infrastructure. This has been said to be a “three-way” chicken-and-egg conundrum where customers are ready to purchase such vehicles on condition that their recharging would be easy. At the same time, manufacturers do not want to commit themselves to building vehicles that will lack customers. Again, the fuel providers are not ready to install recharging infrastructure for such electric vehicles which the manufacturers are reluctant to make. The policy on such issues in California has begun to deal with this matter. California Governor Brown in 2012signed the Executive Order B-16 that required the state to ensure that all the main metropolitan regions will be in a position to put up with zero-emission vehicles with well defined infrastructure and streamlined access permission . This research paper highlights on the challenges faced in the process of implementation of PEVs and the role of local governments in enacting the best policy to make the project a success.
The achievement of a higher market entry for PEVs has been challenged by the main concern on recharging the energy storage units. There is a main issue at the rate at which they are being grown at the premises of the customers. The quick charging mode that cuts down the charging duration for PEVs requires higher levels of power which subsequently leads to the requirement of higher power systems of electrical charging. As a result of these challenges of the onboard systems of charging, quick charging systems shift the converter electronics off the motor vehicle to the Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE).
There are quite a number of gaps that need to be addressed to in the configuration of quick charge equipment for PEVs and interoperability between the off-board charger and the PEV together with the grid effects of a quick charging on the distribution feeder system. Therefore, there is a need to design an action plan to make this dream a reality. Proposals of PEV quick charge have been made though limited to the reviews that were initially proposed on fast charge standards. Therefore, there is a need to identify gaps and establish requirements for signals, messages and communication. A modular system along with well elaborated system interfaces, aimed at standards settings organizations (SSOs), would be paramount in finding a solution to this.
There are quite a number of considerations that need to be taken into account before establishing an effective PEV charging system that will address the challenges facing their implementation. Well, together with the implantation process, being of great concern, there should be a consolidation of the standards regionally, and more specifically the building codes’ consideration. Above all, there should be acceleration and harmony concerns that have plagued the entire process and need a redress. Any state policy should be at par with IEC standards while the impact on the OEM agreement of North America and Europe should also be factored in. As a solution is also being sought, participations and contributions from different stakeholders should be also encouraged internationally . All the efforts should be made towards the implementation of an efficient charging system that cuts down charging time for the PEVs and equates bigger current systems that amount to higher delivery of electrical power . In making plans for PEV charging systems that have the capacity above 10kW, a logical solution would be the use of DC charging.
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Existing Local Government Success on PEVs
There are several local governments especially in the United States that have successfully implemented these policies/steps. One such example is San Diego. San Diego has been a leader state on PEVs. The following factors have been important for the implementation of PEVs in San Diego. For one, there have been parking and zoning for PEVs as directed by the local government. Updating the building codes, EVSE (Electric vehicle Supply Equipment) and its installation has been a pre-requisite to successful implementation of the project. Moreover, the need to streamline, permit and inspect EVSEs process should be well defined before PEVs can fully take dominance in a given market as has been in case with San Diego. Additional training, education and incentive programs for PEV are paramount to guarantee excellence in PEVs implementation in any state . All these efforts should be tailored in a process of reaching out to residents and local businesses.
Policy Opportunities for Local Governments
The electrification of vehicles has the ability of developing energy security and cutting down carbon emissions through major reductions in the consumption of petroleum . It also offers a chance to bring about an economic growth that can be sustained and establish emerging industries on the idea of innovation and development in technology. The local governments can therefore make possible the widespread acceptance and deployment of electric vehicles in the pursuit of different excellent and modern policies touching on various aspects.
It is important to have national deployment strategies and goals for PEVs. The development of a national objective for PEV deployment offers governments a solid goal around which an effective deployment strategy can be implemented. Such approaches could take into account the availability of demand and supply side initiatives to assist in transforming the market for the electrification of vehicles.
Pilot cities must also be included in coming up with the right policies. Infrastructure and vehicle demonstration projects, particularly in the urban regions, can assist in advancing development by offering very important information on how chargers and PEVs are utilized in the real-world context. Pilot cities highlight consumer preferences, usage and experiences and at the same time deal with the challenges to complete and absolute deployment like charging infrastructure maximization and the effect on the national electric grid.
The coordination and sharing of public investment in vehicle and battery research, demonstration and development are good factors to be included in the policy development. The facilitation of new technology development solutions is important for the lasting upgrading of PEVs. The initiative of electric vehicles encourages the sharing of information among local governments on the public investments in vehicle and battery research, demonstration and development which makes it possible to coordinate the priorities in the industry and create a risk balance and give out rewards linked with the innovation of clean energy. Moreover, private investment in technologies of innovation depends on the active public research realized in elementary research to make technologies commercially viable.
Major Challenges that Cities will Face in Addressing this Executive Order
These vehicles will obviously have utilities with various challenges like many vehicles that are linked to their recharging system, designated many megawatts of emerging demand as well as chances of electric transportation infrastructural forms that support environmental initiatives and energy independence . It is no doubt that the acquisition of PEVs by individuals will largely rely on the presence of charging infrastructures along with a network of fixed points where they can charge the vehicles. If not, an option of stations for swapping the batteries will be important. Local governments would be required to lay a communication network with charging points which would also demand that drivers get unoccupied charging points along with excellent Grid Integration meant for utility load management with vehicle to grid (V2G) abilities in the future. PEVs need smart charging which takes into account all facets of interaction between EVSE, PEV and utilities. Smart charging offers control and information messages for exchange. These messages are important for making sure that there is safe charging and for transmitting signals of prices or demand response time messages from the given utility to the PEV and EVSE.
Overcoming these Challenges
There are definitely a number of challenges linked with full and effective implementation of PEVs and their use. While government efforts would see the implementation of policies that can address these challenges, there is much more communication needed to be made to overcome such difficulties effectively. The local government together with other stakeholders has a big role to play in addressing these issues.
Creating a consistent framework of regulation across the country would be a very important strategy. Regulations by the local government pubic utility commissions compatible all through the state can assist in fostering innovation and at the same time increase the value proposition of PEV . Additionally, this is useful in sustaining the dependability of the national electrical grid.
Local governments could also help in the optimization of both private and public investments in PEV charging infrastructure . There are quite a number of opportunities that can accelerate investment by the private sector, encouraging innovative models of business as it also keeps in mind that PEV requires that some public investment should be made in PEV charging infrastructure. Successful project implementation requires well-laid procedures that ensure consistence and enhance reliability.
Another important aspect in combating these challenges would be the facilitation of PEV rollout. Connecting stakeholders to offer good electric supply equipment (EVSE) and PEV purchase and their installation at home would be a very crucial engagement to deal with any client who is committed to buy a PEV. This is a very appropriate approach if these challenges are to be fully addressed making the project successful.
Well, educating consumers can also help deal with these challenges. Giving explanations on the value of PEV proposition and bridging the information gap to the consumer concerning PEV technology can be attained through a mixture of cutting-edge internet resources and conventional feel-and-touch experiences. Consumers need to understand the risks involved in using PEVs.
The implementation and full incorporation of electric vehicles in any state is a responsibility of the local government bringing together various stakeholders with the best policy for the project. Electric vehicle charging units have posed a major challenge on this project despite its implementation in a number of states. The local government has a responsibility of coordinating and directing the functions of both the private and public organs towards successful implementation of PEVs. The creation of a consistent framework to regulate PEVs and PEV charging systems is important in ensuring that the project is a success. Manufacturers are reluctant to produce electric vehicles that customers are not willing to buy. At the same time, customers would not wish to buy these electric vehicles if the charging systems are not made readily available across the country. The regulations by the local government are expected to mind the market characteristics, potential users of PEVs, electric utilities and the service providers for PEVs.
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