Discuss the development of the Texas frontier from 1810 to 1848. Consider in your answer both Mexican and American interests. How did the resulting clash lead, first, to a call for Texan independence and then subsequent annexation to the United States under the banner of Manifest Destiny? How was this connected to the diplomatic settlement for the PNW in the 1846 treaty?

After Louisiana’s accession in 1803, the United States insisted on including Texas in its territories. The boundary between the United States and New Spain was set at the Sabine River. This agreement was signed in 1819. However, many American settlers did not want to acknowledge it, because they wanted to have new lands.

During the Mexican War of Independence, in 1821, Texas became a territory of Mexico. Mexican Texas had not very big population that is why it permitted immigration from Spain, Mexico, and the United States. Mexico wanted to use the American immigrants as a barrier to the Indian raiders and to block the seizure of territories by the United States.  Mexican thought that they could make the immigrants from America loyal citizens. In 1822, the three hundred of American families were settled the places near the Brazos River. Thus, the population of Texas increased.

Many American immigrants began to flout the Mexican low about the ban on slavery. At that period, the United States was trying to include Texas into its territories. It is for a reason that in 1830, Mexico decided to forbid the immigration from the United States and enforce the customs duties. These new lows were angered Mexican and American immigrants.

In 1832, there was the first revolt against the Mexican lows. At the same time, in Mexico there was the national revolt against the president. Texas was against the current government and drove Mexican soldiers out of East Texas. Texas wanted the political freedom.

At the Convention of 1832, Texas discussed the question about its independence. Further, in 1835, Texas Revolution was begging at the Battle of Gonzales. In 1836, after the defeat of Texas at the Battle of the Alamo, Texas quickly signed a Declaration of Independence, forming the Republic of Texas. Thus, Texas won this war.

After winning its independence, two factions in Texas began a new war. The first was the nationalist faction. Its leader Mirabeau B. Lamar wanted to preserve the independence, to expel the Native Americans, and to enlarge the territory to the Pacific Ocean. The second faction wanted the annexation of Texas to the United States.

In 1842, Mexico began a new war with Texas, and Texas lost it. However, the republic survived, because Mexico could not keep an occupying force there. The republic did not defend its territory. That is why in 1845, Texas was included as a constituent state to the United States.

The Annexation of Texas

After the annexation of Texas, Mexico broke diplomatic relations with America. The war began between the United States and Mexico again, because both countries could not find the compromise Texas’s border. America won this war. Further, the borders of Texas were established at the Rio Grande. In 1845, the phrase Manifest Destiny appeared. It was the product of a newspaperman named O’Sullivan. It meant that the territories of the United States had the right to occupy the continent. During the war between the United States and Mexico this phrase meant that the United States needed to annex Texas, because they desired it. The same situation happened with Oregon. Britain and the United States could not find the compromise to Oregon boundary. In America the Democratic Party asserted that the United States had a right to possess Oregon up to Russian America. The Part was appealed to the theme of Manifest Destiny. Only in 1846, Oregon Treaty was signed between both countries.

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Discuss the conduct and significance of the Lewis & Clark expedition within the context of the general overland exploration on the PNW, inclusive of Canada. What were Jefferson’s policy aims and ambitions? To what extent were they realized?By the nineteenth century, the American expeditions were dispatched to the West to investigate. At that time there were not unknown places, that is why the explorers were coming there to bring the progress and acquire new knowledge.

The first federal expedition to the West was made by Lewis and Clark in 1804-1806. They crossed the western part of the United States, traveling up to the Missouri River and then to the Pacific Ocean. The expedition was commissioned by Tomas Jefferson, an American president. At that time Lewis and Clark were well known persons. The first was the private secretary of Jefferson, and the second was the brother of a Revolutionary War hero.

The objective was to map the new territory and explore the connection between the Missouri River and Columbia River. The last was flowed into the Pacific Ocean. It was the main idea of this trip. Thus, Jefferson tried to find this water connection for the commerce. The secondary objective was economical and scientific, which involved analysis of the natural resources, animal life, and the area’s plants.


During the trip they find a lot of additional lakes and rivers, and Indian tribes. Clark and Lewis established trade and diplomatic relations with these Indian nations. It helped them to not die of starvation and not hopelessly lose in the Rocky Mountains. But during their travel, they also met the aggressive tribes, which were blocking the free trade on the river.

John Colter accompanied the inventors on their trip. Then he left the expedition and later he began to service of Manuel Lisa. He was looking for prime trapping grounds and induced Indians to trade with Lisa. He was the first white man, who glimpsed the Jackson Hole, Grand Tetons, and the area, which today is Yellowstone National Park. He was the first white man, who found a geyser basin.

The discovery of a new practical water way across the continent made them famous for ever. It helped the United States to establish its presence and secure this territory, because British and other countries tried to claim it.

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During the trip, they drew about 140 maps, recorded over two hundred animals and plants, which were new to science, and noted seventy two native tribes.

Jefferson demonstrated his military strength on the new territory for subordinating the native tribes to the United States.

Discuss the role of John McLoughlin in the development of the Pacific N.W., including an assessment of his ambivalent policies which were often at cross purposes with those of his employer, the H.B.C.

Dr. John McLoughlin was well known as the Father of Oregon. In 1818, Oregon was occupied by the United States and Britain. In 1821, he played very important role in the negotiations, which helped the Hudson's Bay Company merged with the North West Company.

He built Fort Vancouver, after his appointment as factor of the Columbia District by the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1825, the fort was opened for business. He controlled the trade and tried to keep the peace with Indians. Also he inaugurated timber and salmon trade with Mexican, which controlled Hawaii and California, and supplied Russian America with produce.

McLoughlin had two brigades. Every brigade was on opposite ends of the track. They carried supplies by horseback and boat. They also made reports for supplies needed, for example, the furs traded, from McLoughlin, who was a head of the Oregon Country HBC operations. Along the route, McLoughlin had a lot of managers. The Pacific Northwest Fort Vancouver was the main center of actions. The ships came from London, dropping off trade goods and supplies and exchanging them for the furs. His fur trade was connected with all parts of the continent. Further, he tried to open the trade with Japan. But the British Government was not interested in it. McLoughlin attempted to convince the Indians not to trade with Americans. He also prevented Indian murders of travelers.

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In 1841, he disobeyed the orders of his company and extended to the American settlers substantial aid. He extended them credit and his aid prevented an attack on his fort by the numerous American settlers. His action avoided the war between British and the United States. At that time the relations between these countries were very strained. He wanted to see Oregon as independent country, which would be free of America.

Describe the course of British-American diplomacy as it related to “joint occupancy” and, finally, U.S. sovereignty in the PNW from 1810-1860.

At the 19th century between Britain and the United States arose the Oregon Question, it was the dispute about the Oregon boundary, as a result of American and British claims to the Pacific Northwest. Both countries had commercial and territorial aspirations there. Moreover, the Oregon Question became very important in diplomacy between these countries.

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  • In 1818, the United States wanted to divide Oregon along the 49th parallel. This parallel was between British North America and the United States. Britain wanted to see the border along the Columbia River. British tried to maintain control of the Hudson's Bay Company, which was trading along this river.
  • In 1818, the Anglo-American Convention was signed. It was the agreement about the joint occupation of this territory for ten years. Later these countries could not resolve the issue and the agreement about the joint occupation were renewed.
  • In 1844, the American Democratic Party asserted that the United States had a right to possess Oregon up to Russian America. The Part was appealed to the theme of Manifest Destiny. Later democrat James Polk, who won the election, was looking for the compromise boundary. But the negotiations between Britain and America broke down. The American expansionists urged Polk to not make any concessions to Britain.

At that time, the relationship between the United States and Mexico were deteriorating after the annexation of Texas. Britain and the United States did not want to begin the war. That is why Polk decided to find the way out of the situation and returned to his old position about the compromise boundary. In 1846, Oregon Treaty was signed between both countries.

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