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Genghis Khan was the founder of the Mongolian empire. He was an outstanding commander who organized military campaigns in the territory of China, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Eastern Europe. Many achievements characterize him as a very intelligent and reasonable person. The biography of Genghis Khan is marked by fierce battles and great conquests. Genghis Khan created the Mongol Empire, uniting the tribes in the territory from China to Russia (Komaroff, 2012). Accordingly, his empire became the largest unified state in history. Some of his campaigns ended with the complete destruction of the entire population or tribe. Some historians call Genghis Khan the father of scorched earth, i.e., military technologies that can destroy virtually all traces of civilization (Kazimee, 2012). Thus, Genghis Khan is a prominent historical figure who left a significant heritage to the world history.

The Biography of Genghis Khan

The approximate date of Genghis Khans birth is unknown. However, according to the calculations of Rashid ad-Din made on the basis of original documents from the archives of the Mongol khans, Genghis Khan was born in 1155 in the steppes of Mongolia, on the Onon River and lived for 66 years (Komaroff, 2012). According to the legend, the newborn was clutching a blood clot in his hand that foreshadowed him the glorious future of the ruler of the world (Kazimee, 2012). After the death of his father, his tribe disintegrated and the volunteer nukers went to serve other military leaders, leaving the nine-year-old Temujin and his two younger brothers. Recently a rich family had to live in poverty and fear. In order not to die of hunger, Temuchin and his brothers hunted marmots and badgers. At the age of 10, Genghis Khan killed one of his brothers while fighting for prey, which they brought together from the hunt.

Yet, there was no despair in the family. Temucins mother, an intelligent and proud woman, did not suffer from bereavement. She raised her sons on the ancient epic tales, preparing them for the future struggle for their rights and suggesting that their current poverty was temporary. First, it motivated the first-born Temuchin, who had to renew the reputation of the family and punish the like-minded traitors who murdered his father. When Temuchin became an adult, he sought his bride Borte, with whom he was betrothed as early as his ninth birthday, which was during his fathers life (McLynn, 2016). Following the laws of the Steppe, her father could not break his promise and allowed his daughter to marry Temujin when he was 16 (McLynn, 2016).

Gradually, the young man began to return small tribes, which were once under the command of his father. Seeing his growing strength, other small tribes began to serve him. When he gathered a hundred warriors, he was not afraid to attack a large tribe of a neighbor. After invasion, he annexed a part of those who believed in his enemies. It is not surprising that Temujin soon became so powerful that in 1190 he decided to proclaim himself the khan of the Mongols, following the accomplishments of his great-grandfather and his fathers uncle (Komaroff, 2012). More precisely, the warriors who believed in him proclaimed him a khan. Ultimately, his army was the most formidable in the world at that time.

The world-famous name of Genghis Khan, in fact, is not a name it is a title. Temujin received this title of a great leader thanks to his military merits, as well as desire to support and protect a strong state with a large and reliable army. This man possessed the potential of a great commander, good organizational skills, and self-control. In addition, he had a strong character and unshakable will. Notably, chroniclers note his generosity and affability, which kept him attached to his subordinates (Kazimee, 2012). He did not deny himself the joys of life but was alien to excesses, incompatible with the dignity of the ruler and commander. He lived a long life, retaining his intellectual abilities and strength of character until his advanced years.

Genghis Khan's Contribution to Social and Military Spheres

Genghis Khan largely contributed to social and military spheres. He was known for his pluralistic attitude to religion and culture. Thus, he made social changes, replacing cronyism with meritocracy. Historically, the west land of the steppe was considered a place where indigenous people had a significant role. However, he replaced this attitude with strength, merit, loyalty, and bravery. Thus, this person imposed different social and military regulations that were more efficient than the old ones. To achieve this, the khan established a strict order in the country. For example, to travel all over the country, conduct trade, and drive caravans was absolutely safe because of the rigid law enforcement (McLynn, 2016). In addition, the roads were in good conditions, trade flourished everywhere, cities grew, and the order was observable everywhere. Thanks to the Mongol warriors, medieval Europe could adopt the ancient culture of the East, China and India, Arab medicine, Chinese engineering thought, and other products of civilization.

Furthermore, Genghis Khan was the proponent of the extra-economic coercion, which created the possibility of feudal exploitation. Most researchers of the problems of social organization and the structure of the Mongolian society support the disintegration of the clan community and the further process of stratification (Kazimee, 2012). Additionally, the khan introduced office work, in particular the maintenance of the Blue Books, which included the lists of subjects and court decisions. From the very beginning, the development of statehood among the Mongols was paramilitary. Thus, wars facilitated the existence of the nascent nobility, and the distribution of this privilege was a means of attracting ordinary people to it (McLynn, 2016).The new state of the Mongols followed the policy of conquest. Notably, internal unity made it easier for Genghis Khan to conquer neighboring countries.

The formation of a single Mongolian state contributed to the political unification of the country, the elimination of the political fragmentation, the development of the economy and culture, and the legal regulation of public relations at the level of customary law as a single regulator throughout Mongolia. Thus, the government dignitary carefully kept a record of all orders and decrees of Genghis Khan in a special notebook and coordinated their implementation within the boundaries of a single Mongolian state. An analysis of many fragments of the law shows that it was not savage and cruel; on the contrary, the official rules were humane and fair (Komaroff, 2012). For example, many articles of the law have a warning nature. One of the articles reads that if the offender was not detained at the scene of the crime, then he can escape the punishment (Komaroff, 2012). The law also argues that one should not face penalty unless they testify.

However, Genghis Khan himself was harsh but aimed to preserve peace and safety for the people. He had the absolute power over his subjects and was more severe than other rulers of the eastern countries (Komaroff, 2012). In the European historiography, for a long time, the tradition of portraying Genghis Khan as a bloodthirsty despot and barbarian prevailed (Kazimee, 2012). Indeed, he was illiterate because of the absence of proper education. However, the very fact that he and his heirs created the empire, which united 4/5 of the Old World signified that he was a distinguished commander and a calculating administrator rather than a fierce conqueror-destroyer.

Furthermore, as a conqueror, he has no equal in the world history. He possessed an impressive grasp of strategic plans as well as a deep foresight of political and diplomatic calculations. Moreover, vast economic knowledge and organization of courier communication on a large scale for military and administrative purposes are his personal achievements (Komaroff, 2012). Admittedly, he was a person endowed with an unconquerable desire for action for the sake of an abstract ideal, a distant goal for which Genghis Khan was ready to sacrifice not only the lives of others but also his own. Ultimately, this person valued safety and well-being above his personal dignity and honor. Therefore, owing to such natural endowments, determination, and strategic thinking, nobody has outshone him as a conqueror in the world history.


The Role of Genghis Khan in the Formation of the Mongolian State

The history of the Mongolian people begins with Genghis Khan. The merging of numerous fragile groups of nomads into a single military and political entity, which suddenly took the Eastern world by surprise and was able to subdue all of Asia, was the inevitable outcome of the wisely planned actions of Genghis Khan. The Mongolian era had a profoundly penetrating influence on the history and culture of the Asian continent. It was accompanied by massive military campaigns and political coups, which provided new opportunities for the East and West.

His ruling was an obvious example of the emerging great power. Thus, he organized communication for the transfer of his orders to the people scattered all over the subordinate lands via couriers. In the steppe state, in the absence of modern notions about mail, telegraph and railways, the organization of such equestrian couriers was an extremely sensible innovation; in fact, nobody else before Genghis Khan was practicing such ruling strategy (Komaroff, 2012). When the monarchy of Genghis Khan developed the character of the World Empire, the network of its communication lines changed into a large state institution that served not only government but also private needs in the relations, which helped travelers even from far Europe discover Mongolia. Ultimately, his innovations contributed to the trading relations with many countries.

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Genghis Khan left the rich cultural and political heritage. The Mongolian leader showed from the very beginning a huge organizational talent. To illustrate, he created a network of lines of communications, which offered unprecedented access for governmental and private needs, as well as ensured trade and cultural exchange within the empire (Kazimee, 2012). Moreover, Genghis Khan was in charge of the administration, finances, and the chancellery of the empire (Kazimee, 2012). Ultimately, he did not violate property rights in the conquered countries unless they opposed him. The most important component of the political heritage of Genghis Khan was the set of laws, namely the so-called Yasy, he formulated during his ruling time Yasy (McLynn, 2016). He promoted the written law to the cult and was a supporter of a firm law enforcement and order. The most important foundation of statehood, in addition to strict adherence to the regulations, was the belief in the religious practices.

Instead of the devastating wars of the small tribes, Genghis Khan cultivated the idea of universal domination among people. His life was invariably devoted to this one goal. Moreover, his sons and successors continued to follow in his footsteps unswervingly. The spirit of the great Genghis Khan continued to live in the members of his extended family. He had the ability to rule not only over his own steppe kingdom but also over the conquered cultural countries of the Asian East and West. Thus, Genghis Khan undoubtedly deserves a title of one of the greatest personalities of the world history.

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Genghis Khans Conquests

With the support of hisallies, the forces of Temuchin began to gradually grow. Thus, Nukers began to demonstrate their allegiance to him; also, he raided his neighbors, multiplying his possessions and herds. In addition, he differed from the rest of the conquerors by the fact that during the battles he tried to keep alive as many people as possible in order to defeat the enemy by the quantity. The history shows that the first serious opponents of Temuchin were Merkit, acting in alliance with the Taychiats, who, in the absence of Temujin, attacked the station of the Bordjigins and took into prison his wife Borte (McLynn, 2016). Genghis Khan defeated the Merkit in the first battle of his life and returned Borte. Furthermore, the first major military enterprise was the war against the Tatars.

Admittedly, the Tatars, at that time, had a hard time repulsing the attacks of the Jin forces entering their domain. Having joined the Chinese troops, he moved to the Tatars. They inflicted a series of strong blows on the latter and gained the booty. The Chinese government, as a reward for the defeat of the Tatars, granted Genghis Khan a high title of the steppe leader. Meanwhile, Temujin independently opposed the Tatars. According to the research, before this campaign, he issued an order according to which, under the threat of the death penalty, it was strictly forbidden to seize prey during the battle and pursue the enemy without an order (McLynn, 2016). After winning the battle, Temujin decided to kill all the Tatars, except for children, as revenge for the ancestors of the Mongols, in particular for Temujin's father (McLynn, 2016). After the defeat, the majority of Mongols took the side of Genghis Khan.

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Historically, the regions closest to the Mongols belonged to China. At that time, Tangut nomads (in the XI century) and Jurchens had already conquered the northwestern parts of the Chinese Empire (in the 12th century) (Kazimee, 2012). Therefore, the Mongols had to defeat them and at the first stage destroy the state of the Tanguts along with the Jurchen, Eventually they intended to invade southern China. They settled in China for almost 80 years, capturing 862 cities (Komaroff, 2012). In case of resistance, residents were to face death penalty. Thus, Genghis Khan captured fertile lands, gardens, and much wealth of one of the largest and most prosperous countries of the world.

The heritage of Genghis Khan has a considerable world-historical significance, and, as a conqueror, he has no equals. Emphasizing the originality of the personal qualities of Genghis Khan, one should not blindly follow the tradition that portrayed him as a cruel conqueror or avoid discussing the political portrait of Temuchin but perceive it in all the multidimensionality of his traits, both positive and negative. Similarly, he fought with his rivals, eventually claiming their lives and, simultaneously, attracted the defeated to his side. However, Genghis Khan has largely contributed to the development of the Mongol Empire. For instance, he created a network of lines of communications, as well as ensured trade and cultural exchange within the empire. He was a wise commander and a calculating administrator, which contradicts the common image of him being a merciless destroyer. The most important part of the heritage of Genghis Khan was the set of laws he formulated during his ruling. Therefore, Genghis Khan is a prominent historical figure who was realizing the idea of the powerful Mongol Empire throughout his years of rein.

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