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Rosa Parks is an American heroine who helped to eliminate the unjust segregation and apartheid between the African-Americans and the Caucasians. There was a segregation law according to which in the bus the African-Americans were expected to give their seats to the Caucasians. The colored people were to take the back seats always while in the public transport. This segregation law was violated by Rosa Parks who was later arrested by the police. This was a great injustice as people should be treated equally; besides, the woman was forty-two years old when this incident happened. This means she was old enough to be given a seat in the bus. Rosa Parks courage motivated women to ensure they know all their rights and are able to fight against injustice in the society. Her arrest led to a 381-day Montgomery Buss Boycott. It was planned by the womens political council after a lawyer Clifford Durr and Edgar Nixon, a civil rights leader, helped Rosa. The Women Political Council printed 35,000 handbills announcing the boycott; also, all African-American churches were informed about it that Sunday. Rosa was fed up with the frustrations and mistreatments being told to take a back seat and leave the front ones for the Caucasians. Later on, she received many awards; finally, upon her death, she received tributes from the USA President and other dignitaries (Taylor, 1988). This act happened in Montgomery, Alabama, in the year 1955, December.

Earlier, there were rules segregating African-Americans and the Caucasians. The African-Americans were humiliated and had no rights at all. They were always given the least priorities and were not to associate in any way with the Caucasians. Evidently, this boycott was planned longtime ago by an African-American by the name Martin Luther King Jr. He was the manager of the National Association for the Advancement of the Colored People (NAACP). Twelve years later, in 1955, Rosa Parks, who was a secretary to a city chapter of NAACP, violated the segregation rules (Taylor, 1988).

Rosa had been staying in this region and facing various humiliations since she was an African-American. During the Second World War, in the year 1943, Rosa became a civil rights activist. According to her responsibilities, she had to ensure that all people are treated equally. She sat in the bus and refused to move in order to serve the people of the same background as a civil rights activist. This is one of the reasons as to why she agreed to be arrested for the sake of her people. She wanted to stand firm and let the ruling team or the leaders to understand the fact that African-Americans were not pleased at all. Standing for her people was geared towards motivating them and giving them strength to eliminate unjust behaviors in the society (Taylor, 1988).

A second reason may be the fact that a couple of months ago, Rosa Parks was sickened by news of an African-American boys murder. This teenage boy was walking in Mississippi despite being a northerner. He was killed by Caucasian men acquainted by an all-Caucasian jury. This made Rosa annoyed; thus she termed the country as sickened. According to her, she was fed up her whole life because of being treated as an inferior person. She wanted people to be treated equally be it African-American person or a Caucasian. In other words, both African-Americans and Caucasiasn had the right to live and enjoy their life (Washington, 1991).

In her 1992 autobiography, Parks stated that from her child hood, she had the desire to make life easy for her fellow African-Americans. This desire was instilled in her by her maternal grandfather who always told them not to reconcile themselves to mistreatments. Due to these inspirations, Rosa stood up for her people despite the consequences. She wanted to ensure that she is like the grandfather who never feared the Caucasians. Her grandfather usually called the Caucasian men by their whole names without adding sir or master. This is one of the reasons why she got involved into this movement of doing away with the segregations, apartheid and racial discriminations in Montgomery region (Washington, 1991).

During her schooling, at the age of 11 years, Rosa had to move from Pine to Montgomery, because there were no schools for African-Americans beyond grade six. The Caucasians were very comfortable in their schooling as compared to African-Americans. This means that discrimination was obvious in various fields including education. She was now forced to look for school elsewhere as there were no African-American schools. All people regardless of their skin color have right to education just like the Caucasians in all regions of America (Williams, 2002).

Rosas attempt to register as a voter failed twice in the year 1943. According to her, African-Americans also had the right to vote as they wanted to choose their leaders as well. The Caucasians, on the other hand, were not supposed to pass a literacy test to become voters. Rosa Parks was also the youth adviser to the NAACP who advised young African-American people and helped them in organizing protests at the citys public library. This is because the African-Americans were only allowed to pick up books but not to study in the library. The separate library for African-Americans had fewer books as compared to the library available to the Caucasians. These acts are one of the factors that pushed her to involve in the protest against the segregation rules in Montgomery (Williams, 2002).


Twelve years earlier, Parks had been put off the same bus for the failure to enter it using the rear door which was meant for the African-Americans. She paid her cash using the front door and was expected to get down and board through the back door, but she did the exact opposite. She explained that the stairs of alighting were crowded meanwhile there were no people in the front door into the bus, so she opted to use it (Williams, 2002).

Rosa Parks had an obstacle in obtaining education. She went to a school where her mother was teaching up to the age of eleven years. She faced obstacles in achieving higher education. This is because in the region where they lived, there were no African-American schools beyond grade six. She managed to overcome this challenge by moving from pine level to Montgomery to continue her studies. She managed to finish her schooling even though at some point, she had to leave school to go and take care of her sick mother. She finally managed to become a secretary at NAACP and a youth adviser. She was also called upon to join the Caucasians in a workshop that was dealing with racism. At this seminar, she managed to interact freely with the Caucasians without feeling discriminated (Washington, 1991).

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Rosa faced an obstacle of being an African-American woman with very few rights. She was not allowed to register as a voter that easily as she had to pass a literacy test. The African-Americans were tested first before registering. Rosa finally passed her examinations and was allowed to register as voter. By voting, one is given the chance to choose which leaders they want and ensure that their interests are catered for in the government. Another right she was denied is travelling in a public bus. Rosa was removed out of the bus, because she entered through the front door which was for the Caucasians. The second time she ended up being arrested, because she refused to give her seat to a Caucasian man. The library has also restrictions to the African-Americans providing them with very few books and not allowing to read in the library (Asante, 2002).

When Rosa tried to fight for her rights by refusing to let go her seat, she was arrested. She stood trial even though she was found guilty. It happened in the year 1955 when she was bailed out by the womens political society. This incident instigated the human rights movement which led to victory in defeating injustice. African Americans, as a result, ended up receiving more rights than they expected. This was a victory to the whole world as racism and segregation laws were abolished. People of all origins were now treated equally and also had equal rights. Rosa Parkers arrest is considered both as an obstacle and accomplishment as it motivated the Human Rights Movement (Asante, 2002).

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Emotional obstacles come about in the year 1977 when Rosas husband Raymond Parks died; then, in 1979, died her mother. These were trying moments for her, but she managed to go on with life. She still went ahead achieving her missions and objectives of ensuring equality in treatment of people. The fact that she had to devote time to taking care of her grandmother did not prevent her from finishing her schooling. She also had to cope with all the troubles after her father left them in search of wealth (Asante, 2002).

Before the boycott issue in Montgomery, lynching was an illegal execution in order to enforce social dominance. Thanks to the Civil Rights Activists like Rosa, this has never been heard of. Their protest also enabled illegalization of Jim Crow Laws which majorly supported segregation of people according to their colors, especially in public areas.

To most historians, 1955 marks the beginning of a special movement known as the Modern Civil Rights Movement in the USA. Rosa Parks who was a seamstress violated the law of segregation by not giving up her seat for a Caucasian man. She was brave enough to face the law for what she believed was her right. In return, the act led to the emergence of human rights movement in Montgomery. As a result of this, there were riots and boycotts of the public service vehicles by the African-Americans. They preferred walking to their destinations rather than putting up with the daily humiliations and harassments in the buses. Today, people talk of freedom everywhere in the world (Williams, 2002).

Rosa Parks is an inspiration to the whole world. Despite having a very humble background, she managed to be treated like an elite at the time she died. She received state honor after her death and was buried with a marvelous ceremony. She always wanted to take advantage of available opportunities, for example, when she went to industrial school for girls. She was financed by liberal minded-women from the northern USA. Her fearless nature is also an inspiration to many. Without fear or favor, she refused to give her seat that led to her arrest. She also incited the youths to protest against the main librarys management. She was never afraid of the consequences of either being arrested or the youths destroying the library (Feeney, 2005).

The Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute of self-development, which she founded after the death of her husband in 1977, has changed the lives of people around the area. The young people are given chance to tour their country hence learning more. This has helped in strengthening the education systems in the United States. Southern Christian Leadership has also established an annual award known as Rosa Parks Freedom Award. It is given to individuals after a competition (Feeney, 2005).

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Thanks to Rosa Parks efforts, the United States of America is a full zone of freedom where people interact freely without restrictions. As compared to other countries, the United States of America is the largest metropolitan region in the world; this is because of freedom provided to all human races without discrimination. The voters are not judged upon their race or color; neither do they pass test to get registered. Voting is available to everyone above the age of eighteen years. Voting is the right of individual as it gives him/her chances to choose the leaders they want. There are reduced murder and bully cases as all people have the same rights compared to the previous age. Today, there are Democrats party and Republican Party in the United States. This is a clear indication of democracy prevailing in the country (Feeney, 2005).

Still, there is a thought among the elites that the poor or the marginalized people should not be allowed to vote. They believe that there is a group of individuals who cannot rule. They think that only the elites can rule in the United States. This is a major reason why the democrats are always being criticized and ridiculed as compared to republicans. The elites should understand the facts that even the poor can be blessed with leadership quality (Williams, 2002).

In conclusion, this discussion mainly focused on Rosa Parks since she is a heroine who instigated many positive changes in the United States of America. Apart from coming from a humble background, she ended being a happy woman with a state honor. She was visited by the president of the United State of America, George Bush, upon his death. Therefore, many honorary awards were given to her in respect to her contribution towards abolition of segregation and racism in the USA. She was fearless and focused on whatever she wanted to achieve. She knew how to fight for her rights and the rights of other people who were oppressed. Her actions led to protests in Montgomery when the African-Americans boycotted public busses and deciding to go on foot. Her achievements have contributed immensely to the present state of the United States of America. Her eagerness to eradicate segregation and racism as well as discrimination has made the country free and comfortable to live in. Other achievements of Rosa can also be regarded as an inspiration to other people throughout the world. The institution she opened in honor of her husband helps a lot in educational development as children are made aware of their historic sites for free. Thanks to Rosa Parks, the African-Americans now feel respected and recognized by the Constitution of the United States of America.

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