According to Simon Leung, there is a connection between the body, techniques and technology (Leung 2011: 121). He illustrates this relationship through the use of several works done before. The first work he uses is Macel Mauss essay, which categorized humanity into two types. According to the essay, there are those human beings who have a tendency to sit and those who have the tendency to squirt. According to him, those who sit are seen to be more superior compared to those who squat (Leung 2011: 121). Leung states that skin color as well as where one came from western humanity according to him are upright and that is the reason they are allowed to sit while the rest of the people from other regions such as Asians and Africans are seen as being subservient as well as being base. He is able to come up with the theme of race and its role in humanity (Leung 2011: 121).
The sitters are the whites and are seen to enjoy all the privileges unlike the squatters who are seen to struggle (Leung 2011: 121). The non-Europeans are seen to struggle all through the essay and this has been well described by the author. Simon stipulates that the classification of people on the basis of race offers a good start-up point in the urge to trace essence through our body. It is here that he draws the relationship between the body, technique and technology. According to him, the opposite of this is the artifice power affirmation in all body attitudes. Moreover, this is technological education study (Leung 2011: 121). Technology here is defined in relation to human being as opposed to its definition in relation to war, science or speed. Bodies are seen as instruments that are used to acculturate. It is also seen as mechanical process that experiences constrain from social traditions as well as utility (Leung 2011: 121).
From his argument, it is clear that our body can act as the center of technology. There is also the aspect of technique, which is clearly emerging. This is obviously by the use of the word instrument. The relationship between the bodies, technique as well as technology is well established here (Leung 2011: 121). First, the author defines the body on the basis of race between Europeans who are seen to enjoy all the privileges such as sitting in the bus stop while waiting for the bus and also the non-Europeans who in this essay are described as being underdogs (Leung 2011: 121). They are seen as slaves compared to their European counterparts. On the other hand, technology is defined with body as the center of the focus where the normal definition is not used. The author refers to the work of Mauss and there is one statement in his work, “les techniques du corps has been used to describe techniques on the basis of human beings” (Leung 2011: 121).
Role of Social is Emphasized
The role of social is emphasized here in the body’s repetitive action. There is also the mention of human habits, which are seen to signify the acquired abilities or even faculty of individuals. There is contradistinction of the word (Leung 2011: 121). The word habitus being a Latin word is used to mean custom or habit. There is also the use of the word habitus, which in French means the location in the body where human techniques are located (Leung 2011: 121). According to him, habitus is used to mean a process that is structural, which is seen varying between societies, proprieties as well as fashions, educations, and prestige type. There is no variation between individuals as well as imitations when it comes to the structural process. The author also indicates that these techniques should be perceived (Leung 2011: 121).
There is a need to not only see the soul’s repetitive faculties, which is the obvious way, but rather we should perceive the techniques as well as collective work plus practical reasoning of the individual (Leung 2011: 121) from who the author draws the work, body habits comprise of the “techniques”. These techniques are perceived to be emanated from “inhabiting” a space, which is socially enacted. From Mauss’s work, the author indicated that there are a number of factors that necessitates one to acquire certain body skills (Leung 2011: 121). The determinants factored in include biological, psychological, as well as social factors. These factors occur in dissolvable mix.
An individual is seen to imitate actions, which have the content of certain elements that are either psychological or biological (Leung 2011: 121). These actions should have shown some levels of success. According to Simon, there are two main divisions of human beings namely those known to squat as well as those know to sit (Leung 2011: 121). Those who squat are said to be uncivilized while those who sit are said to be civilized group. This division is given by the author on the basis of body. This definition is a clear indication that racism is common (Leung 2011: 121). The subject of race is clear in Mauss’s work. He talks of a child who is seen squatting and according to him, this is a result of inferiority as far as race society, races as well as civilization are concerned. Squatting as well as purging, which is clear in Mauss’s essay gives a highlight of the fact that the techniques of the body that we inhabit are being forgotten continuously and they are also analogous to other forms, which are mediating and include speech writing (Leung 2011: 121). These techniques are seen to function as both agency and sign.
The relationship between body, technique as well as technology is also clearly shown by Vietnamese refugees who were allocated to San Jose as their place of residence (Leung 2011: 122). Their body was displaced from their home country to settle in the U.S. Their displaced body is seen to be in the process of adaptation to the culture of the U.S. Prior to their relocation to the America, squatting was seen as a normal thing, but this changed drastically to mean uncivilized class of people (Leung 2011: 122). Uncivilized primitive people were not supposed to sit down while waiting for the bus. Sitting was allowed for Americans whom this essay show was “civilized”. Just like the boy in the beginning of the story was squatting, everybody was trying to identify himself/herself as they had acquired new bodies.
Assimilation, which entails changes, that occurs in individuals whereby there is displacement of old habits (Leung 2011: 122). It also entails self-ecology whereby one tries to identify himself/herself with the new self-found in the new environment. Resources such as seats at the bus stations were meant to be used by everybody and this shows how uncivilized people at times behave. This also tells the differences that exist between access to technology as well as availability of materials (Leung 2011: 122). There is a possibility that Simon’s brother as well as other squatters were not avoiding the seats as a result of a habit. There may be a loss of body access to squatting. These people from Vietnam are seen to experience anachronism to each other. In short, they were undergoing self-identity in the new nation. Current, squatting habit among the Vietnamese living in San Jose has diminished and only few people are doing this. The squatting model is sometimes used by immigrants who come to the U.S. in search of labor. This, however, disappears as time moves (Leung 2011: 121).
In relation to outer-technology of resistance, squatting is viewed in line with sovereignty. It means resistance to war technology, which is declared in sovereignty name (Leung 2011: 127). At the same time, this is a resistant to terms, which are imposed by sovereignty to subjected squatters. Resistant involves not losing whatever one values dearly. There are certain bodies, which define squatting as resistant position that reflects events and history, as well as the space existing from arrival to departure in occupant’s life (Leung 2011: 127). In cities like Berlin, the author’s intention was bringing forth squatting poetic to public ream, having come from the trace. Apart from that, the author’s intention was also to bring forth gesture promise that dependent on a body, which was not his. The gesture promise is also future oriented (Leung 2011: 127).
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Though seats were available in the bus, the stranger did not occupy them, but rather squatted. The author attributes this to lack of civilization, which after many years ended. The squat is reaffirmed by the author in that he echoes other authors such as Mauss. He explains that the current regime is filled with violence and that people are resentful (Leung 2011: 127). He prefers the time when people used to squat as there was no much better as people at that moment were not filled with violence like they are in today’s society (Leung 2011: 127). There is erosion of space currently according to the author. There has been violence retention in such a way that one can humbly re-inhabit it.
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